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A disease is a condition characterized by an abnormality of the body or mind that causes dysfunction or distress to the person afflicted. In terms relevant to body modification, a disease usually refers to a pathogenic infection by a microbe of some sort.

The transmission of a disease (that is microbial in nature) can be greatly reduced by the proper use of disinfectants, proper sterilization of relevant equipment and proper hygiene practices by a practitioner.